To test the hypothesis that mildly elevated triglyceride levels are associated with the increase of homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and β-cell function (HOMA-β) indices in healthy children and adolescents with normal weight, we conducted a cross-sectional population study. Based on fasting triglyceride levels, participants were allocated into groups with and without triglyceride levels ≥1.2 mmol/L. Normal weight was defined by body mass index between the 15th and 85th percentiles, for age and gender. Insulin resistance and insulin secretion were estimated using HOMA-IR and HOMA-β indices. A total of 1660 children and adolescents were enrolled, of them 327 (19.7 %) with mildly elevated triglycerides. The multivariate linear regression analysis showed that mildly elevated triglyceride levels in children were associated with HOMA-IR (β = 0.214, p < 0.001), HOMA-β (β = 0.139, p = 0.001), systolic (β = 0.094, p = 0.01), and diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.102, p = 0.007), whereas in adolescents, HOMA-IR (β = 0.267, p < 0.001) and HOMA-β (β = 0.154, p < 0.001), but not systolic (β = 0.029, p = 0.38) and diastolic blood pressure (β = 0.015, p = 0.642), showed association with mildly elevated triglycerides. Conclusion: Mildly elevated triglyceride levels are associated with increased HOMA-IR and HOMA-β indices in healthy children and adolescents with normal weight.
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